The Green Transition

The transformation of energy production from coal, oil and natural gas to green technologies is in rapid progress. In Denmark, green energy production comprises more than 45 % of the total energy production. But the green transition requires a stable and sufficient supply of raw materials to produce all the wind turbines, solar cells, electric cars, heat pumps, batteries etc. – and at an affordable price. Some of these key raw materials are considered critical by the EU and only a very small fraction may be recovered from recycling.

We offer

Scenario analyses

MIMA makes scenario-based analyses, which inter alia, serve to uncover the raw material needs of the future and whether the green transition can be implemented without the price of raw materials increasing.

Criticality analyses

MIMA conducts assessments of the criticality of raw materials – i.e. their economic and societal significance combined with the degree of security of supply. Such assessments can help avert the financial consequences of a structural raw material deficiency and are therefore relevant at both business level, national level and EU level.

Value chain analyses

MIMA carries out analyses of the raw materials’ value chain, from investigation to production, to explain how market mechanisms, legislation and changes in market conditions affect the outcome of certain investments and political decisions.

Contact us for collaboration

If you want to know more about cooperating with MiMa, the green transition or our publications, please get in touch.

Contact information

Telefon: 91 33 34 34

About the green transition

Green transition creates demand for green raw materials. In particular, three technological solutions for the green transition increase the demand for raw materials:


The number of wind farms is growing worldwide. This increases the consumption of raw materials for wind turbines.

For instance, 2,400 tonnes of concrete, 600 tonnes of steel, 18 tonnes of copper and 1 ton of rare earth metals are used to make one 6 GW land-based wind turbine.

Solar cells

Silicon, boron, titanium, gallium, aluminium, copper and silver are used to make solar cells, and demand is growing rapidly.


An increasing demand for batteries for e.g. electric cars means an increasing demand for lead, cobalt, lithium and graphite in particular.

In line with the green transition, the international competition for green raw materials increases, and the consequence is a significant supply risk. MIMA has analysed the expected market development for rare earth metals in the EU (in the EURARE Report), which are key raw materials for many of the green technologies.

Flow of raw materials to various technologies in the green transition

See which critical raw materials are used in various technologies, as well as in which sectors those technologies are used.

The figure is interactive. Click on a + next to a group of raw materials or a technology and see more detail.

The above figure is based on the report ‘Supply chain analysis and material demand forecast in strategic technologies and sectors in the EU – A foresight study’.