Per Kalvig


(ca. 20 mb)





“The value chains of rare earth elements differ in complexity from most other raw materials because it is a large group of elements found together in the minerals, but which have, to some extent, different uses and demands. These combinations require an infrastructure that includes many steps of complex technologies (some of which are even legally protected), as well as markets
demanding the products.

It is, therefore, not easy to develop western supply chains that, in competition with Chinese companies,
can deliver the important raw materials to, for instance, the green transition. The objective of this report is to highlight the complexity of such a task. Firstly, the report provides an overview of the value chains for rare earth elements from mineral exploration to finished product, as well as an account of the main industrial uses. Also, some of the reasons that the western world’s supply challenges regarding the rare earth elements, now 10 years after the challenges were recognised, still haven’t been resolved, are discussed. The report also provides an overview of the supply challenges the world may face heading towards 2030 with the increased focus on green technology, where the rare earth elements are included as key raw materials for several
technology applications. In addition, the report touches upon the significant climate impact that the production of rare earth elements used in the green transition gives rise to.”